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How to cite research reagents in your paper

This article provides a guide on how to cite research reagents within your paper, to allow other scientists to procure the same reagents in order to reproduce and build upon your work.

Technical Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ’s)

Here our Scientific Support team have answered the technical inquires that we regularly receive.

The Relabelling Racket (Video)

This video introduces the commercial practice of relabelling research antibodies for resale and explains its negative implications.

A comparison between polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies

Polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies differ greatly in their production and their uses. This article outlines the key differences, advantages and disadvantages of polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies.

The Relabelling Racket

Almost exactly a year ago today a study was released in the journal PLOS which states $28 billion is spent in the United States each year on biomedical research that can’t be reproduced by other researchers. This is one of the most provocative analyses that have been presented in recent years, among several other studies that have had similar conclusions. In response, the National Institutes of Health (NIH) issued new criteria for grant reviews aimed at bolstering the reproducibility of NIH-funded research.

Purchasing Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ’s)

Here our Customer Service team have answered the purchasing inquires that we regularly receive.

MOB357 - Mucin 5AC/Gastric Mucin Antibody

Price Comparison

This article compares the price differences between antibodies sourced from the OEM's and relabelled versions available from antibody vendors.

Product Quality Guarantee

We promise guaranteed product quality and expert customer service. Read about our product quality guarantee.

Tissue Homogenization Video

This video demonstrates how to prepare a homogenate from animal tissue using a Dounce homogenizer. The tissue homogenate can then be used for many different downstream applications like western blotting, enzyme assays etc. Similar technique may also be applied to cells for preparation of cell lysates.

Protein Quantitation Video

This video introduces protein quantitation, providing a guide to help you choose the right assay based on sample characteristics and a step-wise protocol for a colorimetric (OD 562 nm) detergent-compatible BCA assay with sample dilution guidelines.

Dialysis Video

This video demonstration shows you how to remove small molecules (salts, surfactants, solvents, detergents) from any sample by dialysis using BioVision’s DiaEasy™ Dialyzer line of products.

Cell Cryopreservation Video

This video demonstrates how to Trypsinize, count and freeze adherent mammalian cells for future use. These cryopreserved cells can be maintained in Liquid Nitrogen and thawed as needed.

Cell Splitting Video

This short video will take you through the steps (Trypsinization, counting and calculations) involved in passaging confluent adherent mammalian cells for future experiments or for maintenance of cell lines using Good Lab Practices and sterile technique.

Antibody Purification Video

This video shows you the steps for purifying a specific antibody from serum using BioVision’s high binding Protein A/Protein G-Sepharose beads. The purified antibody can then be used for Western Blotting, Immunoprecipitation and many other applications.

An introduction to allergy and chimeric human IgE mAbs

Allergy is an IgE-mediated immune reaction triggered by specific allergens followed by a series of clinical symptoms, such as itching, sneezing, and running nose. Serum concentrations of allergen-specific IgE and the ratio of specific IgE to total IgE are correlated with the appearance of allergic symptoms.

Why use oligoclonals as secondary antibodies?

This article introduces oligoclonal antibodies and explains the benefits of using them as secondary antibodies.

Autophagy Pathway

Autophagy, which is highly conserved in eukaryotes, is a catabolic process tightly regulated by several proteins, including ATG proteins, mTOR, beclin1, and FoxO proteins. It plays an important role in maintaining cellular homeostasis in response to a broad spectrum of cellular stresses, such as infection, nutrient starvation, damaged organelles, and protein aggregation.

NF-κB Pathway

Nuclear factor kappa beta (NF-kB) is a nearly ubiquitous pathway responsible for mediating DNA transcription, and thereby cell function. The pathway is activated by a variety of stimuli, including cellular stress, cytokines, free radicals, UV radiation, oxidized LDL, and bacterial/viral infection.

Apoptosis Pathway

Apoptosis is a spontaneous apoptotic process in normal cells under physiological and pathological stress. It is a gene-controlled process of programmed cell death (PCD) that can keep the internal environment stable along with cell proliferation.

Hippo Pathway

Hippo signaling is an evolutionarily conserved pathway that controls organ size by regulating cell proliferation, apoptosis, and stem cell self-renewal. In addition, dysregulation of the Hippo pathway contributes to cancer development.

DNA Damage / Repair

In eukaryotic cells, both normal metabolism and exogenous factors, such as UV light and radiation, can cause DNA damage, resulting in as many as 105 spontaneous molecular lesions per cell per day. To respond to these threats, mammals have evolved the DNA damage response (DDR). This response controls DNA repair, a collection of processes by which a cell identifies and corrects damage to the DNA molecules that encode its genome.

Akt Pathway

Akt (v-Akt Murine Thymoma Viral Oncogene)/ PKB (Protein Kinase-B) is a Serine/threonine Kinase that is involved in mediating various biological responses, by phosphorylation of a number of intracellular proteins, regulates different cellular processes, such as cell growth, cell cycle, apoptosis and glucose metabolism.

Cancer/Apoptosis Pathway

In apoptosis pathways, signaling results in the activation of a family of Cysteine Proteases, named Caspases that act in a proteolytic cascade to dismantle and remove the dying cell, are central regulators of apoptosis. Initiator caspases (including 8, 9,10) are closely coupled to pro-apototic signals.

Cell Cycle Pathway

Cell-division control affects many aspects of development. Caenorhabditis elegans cell-cycle genes have been identified over the past decade, including at least two distinct Cyclin-Dependent Kinases (CDKs), their cyclin partners, positive and negative regulators, and downstream targets.

Chromatin/Transcription Pathway

Chromatin is the substance which becomes visible chromosomes during cell division. Its basic unit is nucleosome, composed of 146 bp DNA and eight histone proteins. The structure of chromatin is dynamically changing, at least in part, depending on the need of transcription.

Cytoskeleton/Adhesion Pathway

G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), comprise a large protein family of transmembrane receptors that sense molecules outside the cell and activate inside signal transduction pathways and, ultimately, cellular responses. GPCRs are activated by an external signal in the form of a ligand or other signal mediator.

DNA Damage/Repair Pathway

The repair of DNA lesions that occur endogenously or in response to diverse genotoxic stresses is indispensable for genome integrity. DNA lesions activate checkpoint pathways that regulate specific DNA-repair mechanisms in the different phases of the cell cycle.

Insulin/Glucose Metabolism Pathway

Insulin has diverse effects on cells including stimulation of glucose transport, gene expression and alterations of cell morphology. Insulin signaling begins with either the activation or substrate kinase activity of the insulin receptor (IR), which is the only component of the pathway that is unique to insulin action.

Jak/Stat Pathway

The Janus Kinase (JAK) and signal transducers and activators of transcription (STAT) pathway has been shown to play a key role in cytokine-mediated signal transduction, and to regulate growth, differentiation, and death of both normal and transformed cells.

MAPK Pathway

Intracellular signaling cascades are the main routes of communication between the plasma membrane and regulatory targets in various intracellular compartments. Sequential activation of Kinases is a common mechanism of signal transduction in many cellular processes.

NF-kappa B Pathway

NF-Kappa B (Nuclear Factor-Kappa B) is a heterodimeric protein composed of different combinations of members of the Rel family of transcription factors. The Rel/ NF-Kappa B family of transcription factors are involved mainly in stress-induced, immune, and inflammatory responses.

TGFb/smads Pathway

A visual representation of the TGFb/smads pathway.

Translation Pathway

Translation initiation is a complex process in which initiator tRNA, 40S, and 60S ribosomal subunits are assembled by eukaryotic initiation factors (eIFs) into an 80S ribosome at the initiation codon of mRNA. The cap-binding complex eIF4F and the factors eIF4A and eIF4B are required for binding of 43S complexes (comprising a 40S subunit, eIF2/GTP/Met-tRNAi and eIF3) to the 5′ end of capped mRNA but are not sufficient to promote ribosomal scanning to the initiation codon.

Adhesion Molecules

Adhesion Molecules are proteins located on the cell surface involved in binding with other cells or with the extracellular matrix (ECM) in the process of cell adhesion or cellular interactions.

Angiogenesis

Angiogenesis is the physiological process through which new blood vessels form from pre-existing vessels, and is a normal and vital process in growth and development, as well as in wound healing and in granulation tissue.

Apoptosis

Apoptosis is a naturally occurring process by which a cell is directed to Programmed Cell Death. Apoptosis is based on a genetic program that is an indispensable part of the development and function of an organism and is a regulated physiological process leading to cell death.

Cancer Biomarkers

Cancer biomarkers are substances that indicate tumor state, progression characteristics, and response to therapies. Most cancer biomarkers are transcription factors, cell surface receptors, or secreted proteins that are produced by either cancer cells or other cells in response to cancer.

Cancer Stem Cell Markers

Cancer cells found within tumors or hematological cancers that possess characteristics associated with normal stem cells , specifically the ability to give rise to all cell types found in a particular cancer sample. CSCs are therefore tumorigenic (tumor-forming), perhaps in contrast to other non-tumorigenic cancer cells. CSCs may generate tumors through the stem cell processes of self-renewal and differentiation into multiple cell types.

Cell Cycle

Cell cycle, or cell-division cycle, is the series of events that take place in a cell leading to its division and duplication (replication). Cell cycle control affects many aspects of development. Caenorhabditis elegans cell-cycle genes have been identified over the past decade, including at least two distinct Cyclin-Dependent Kinases (CDKs), their cyclin partners, positive and negative regulators, and downstream targets.

Oncoproteins/Suppressors

An oncogene is a gene that has the potential to cause cancer. In tumor cells, they are often mutated or expressed at high levels. Most normal cells undergo a programmed form of death (apoptosis). Activated oncogenes can cause those cells that ought to die to survive and proliferate instead. Most oncogenes require an additional step, such as mutations in another gene, or environmental factors, such as viral infection, to cause cancer.

Wnt/Notch/Hedgehog Pathway

During development, Wnt (Wingless-Type MMTV Integration Site Family) have diverse roles in governing cell fates, proliferation, migration, polarity, and death. In the absence of Wnt signaling, β-Catenin is associated with a cytoplasmic complex containing CK1, GSK3, Axin, APC and PP2A.

An introduction to the commercial practice of relabelling research antibodies

This article discusses the commercial practice of relabelling research antibodies, including the extent of this business model and its negative implications.

F1000 Research - Commercial antibodies and their validation (2014)

Despite an impressive growth in the business of research antibodies a general lack of trust in commercial antibodies remains in place. A variety of issues, each one potentially causing an antibody to fail, underpin the frustrations that scientists endure. Lots of money goes to waste in buying and trying one failing antibody after the other without realizing all the pitfalls that come with the product.

Analytical Chemistry Insights - Quality Issues of Research Antibodies (2016)

According to several recent studies, an unexpectedly high number of landmark papers seem to be not reproducible by independent laboratories. Although some papers have been published offering suggestions to improve the situation, they do not seem to be comprehensive enough to cover the full complexity of this issue. This article tries to consolidate the remarkable variety of conclusions and suggested activities into a more coherent conception.

Biotechniques – Antibody Validation (2010)

Antibodies are among the most frequently used tools in basic science research and in clinical assays, but there are no universally accepted guidelines or standardized methods for determining the validity of these reagents. Furthermore, for commercially available antibodies, it is clear that what is on the label does not necessarily correspond to what is in the tube. To validate an antibody, it must be shown to be specific, selective, and reproducible in the context for which it is to be used. In this review, we highlight the common pitfalls when working with antibodies, common practices for validating antibodies, and levels of commercial antibody validation for seven vendors. Finally, we share our algorithm for antibody validation for immunohistochemistry and quantitative immunofluorescence.

Nature - Reproducibility: Standardize antibodies used in research (2015)

To save millions of dollars and dramatically improve reproducibility, protein-binding reagents must be defined by their sequences and produced as recombinant proteins, say Andrew Bradbury, Andreas Plückthun and 110 co-signatories.

Nature - Finding the right antibody for the job (2013)

As new research applications for antibody-based assays emerge, the quest for quality intensifies in a crowded marketplace.

Nature - Biomedical researchers lax about validating antibodies for experiments (2016)

“reproducibility problems attributed to antibodies can be blamed on “a two-headed monster” of poor antibodies and poor training. Both are fuelled by lack of clear, commonly accepted guidelines about what is required to validate an antibody, and what information companies should supply about the reagent’s performance.”

Nature – Reproducibility crisis: Blame it on the antibodies (2015)

Antibodies are the workhorses of biological experiments, but they are littering the field with false findings. A few evangelists are pushing for change.

OEM Search Engine

This search engine only searches the websites of companies who manufacture all their own reagents. It is designed to help you match a product from an antibody reseller back to the original source.

Technical Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ’s)

Here our Scientific Support team have answered the technical inquires that we regularly receive.

Purchasing Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ’s)

Here our Customer Service team have answered the purchasing inquires that we regularly receive.

Autophagy Pathway

Autophagy, which is highly conserved in eukaryotes, is a catabolic process tightly regulated by several proteins, including ATG proteins, mTOR, beclin1, and FoxO proteins. It plays an important role in maintaining cellular homeostasis in response to a broad spectrum of cellular stresses, such as infection, nutrient starvation, damaged organelles, and protein aggregation.

NF-κB Pathway

Nuclear factor kappa beta (NF-kB) is a nearly ubiquitous pathway responsible for mediating DNA transcription, and thereby cell function. The pathway is activated by a variety of stimuli, including cellular stress, cytokines, free radicals, UV radiation, oxidized LDL, and bacterial/viral infection.

Apoptosis Pathway

Apoptosis is a spontaneous apoptotic process in normal cells under physiological and pathological stress. It is a gene-controlled process of programmed cell death (PCD) that can keep the internal environment stable along with cell proliferation.

Hippo Pathway

Hippo signaling is an evolutionarily conserved pathway that controls organ size by regulating cell proliferation, apoptosis, and stem cell self-renewal. In addition, dysregulation of the Hippo pathway contributes to cancer development.

DNA Damage / Repair

In eukaryotic cells, both normal metabolism and exogenous factors, such as UV light and radiation, can cause DNA damage, resulting in as many as 105 spontaneous molecular lesions per cell per day. To respond to these threats, mammals have evolved the DNA damage response (DDR). This response controls DNA repair, a collection of processes by which a cell identifies and corrects damage to the DNA molecules that encode its genome.

Akt Pathway

Akt (v-Akt Murine Thymoma Viral Oncogene)/ PKB (Protein Kinase-B) is a Serine/threonine Kinase that is involved in mediating various biological responses, by phosphorylation of a number of intracellular proteins, regulates different cellular processes, such as cell growth, cell cycle, apoptosis and glucose metabolism.

Cancer/Apoptosis Pathway

In apoptosis pathways, signaling results in the activation of a family of Cysteine Proteases, named Caspases that act in a proteolytic cascade to dismantle and remove the dying cell, are central regulators of apoptosis. Initiator caspases (including 8, 9,10) are closely coupled to pro-apototic signals.

Cell Cycle Pathway

Cell-division control affects many aspects of development. Caenorhabditis elegans cell-cycle genes have been identified over the past decade, including at least two distinct Cyclin-Dependent Kinases (CDKs), their cyclin partners, positive and negative regulators, and downstream targets.

Chromatin/Transcription Pathway

Chromatin is the substance which becomes visible chromosomes during cell division. Its basic unit is nucleosome, composed of 146 bp DNA and eight histone proteins. The structure of chromatin is dynamically changing, at least in part, depending on the need of transcription.

Cytoskeleton/Adhesion Pathway

G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), comprise a large protein family of transmembrane receptors that sense molecules outside the cell and activate inside signal transduction pathways and, ultimately, cellular responses. GPCRs are activated by an external signal in the form of a ligand or other signal mediator.

DNA Damage/Repair Pathway

The repair of DNA lesions that occur endogenously or in response to diverse genotoxic stresses is indispensable for genome integrity. DNA lesions activate checkpoint pathways that regulate specific DNA-repair mechanisms in the different phases of the cell cycle.

Insulin/Glucose Metabolism Pathway

Insulin has diverse effects on cells including stimulation of glucose transport, gene expression and alterations of cell morphology. Insulin signaling begins with either the activation or substrate kinase activity of the insulin receptor (IR), which is the only component of the pathway that is unique to insulin action.

Jak/Stat Pathway

The Janus Kinase (JAK) and signal transducers and activators of transcription (STAT) pathway has been shown to play a key role in cytokine-mediated signal transduction, and to regulate growth, differentiation, and death of both normal and transformed cells.

MAPK Pathway

Intracellular signaling cascades are the main routes of communication between the plasma membrane and regulatory targets in various intracellular compartments. Sequential activation of Kinases is a common mechanism of signal transduction in many cellular processes.

NF-kappa B Pathway

NF-Kappa B (Nuclear Factor-Kappa B) is a heterodimeric protein composed of different combinations of members of the Rel family of transcription factors. The Rel/ NF-Kappa B family of transcription factors are involved mainly in stress-induced, immune, and inflammatory responses.

TGFb/smads Pathway

A visual representation of the TGFb/smads pathway.

Translation Pathway

Translation initiation is a complex process in which initiator tRNA, 40S, and 60S ribosomal subunits are assembled by eukaryotic initiation factors (eIFs) into an 80S ribosome at the initiation codon of mRNA. The cap-binding complex eIF4F and the factors eIF4A and eIF4B are required for binding of 43S complexes (comprising a 40S subunit, eIF2/GTP/Met-tRNAi and eIF3) to the 5′ end of capped mRNA but are not sufficient to promote ribosomal scanning to the initiation codon.

Adhesion Molecules

Adhesion Molecules are proteins located on the cell surface involved in binding with other cells or with the extracellular matrix (ECM) in the process of cell adhesion or cellular interactions.

Angiogenesis

Angiogenesis is the physiological process through which new blood vessels form from pre-existing vessels, and is a normal and vital process in growth and development, as well as in wound healing and in granulation tissue.

Apoptosis

Apoptosis is a naturally occurring process by which a cell is directed to Programmed Cell Death. Apoptosis is based on a genetic program that is an indispensable part of the development and function of an organism and is a regulated physiological process leading to cell death.

Cancer Biomarkers

Cancer biomarkers are substances that indicate tumor state, progression characteristics, and response to therapies. Most cancer biomarkers are transcription factors, cell surface receptors, or secreted proteins that are produced by either cancer cells or other cells in response to cancer.

Cancer Stem Cell Markers

Cancer cells found within tumors or hematological cancers that possess characteristics associated with normal stem cells , specifically the ability to give rise to all cell types found in a particular cancer sample. CSCs are therefore tumorigenic (tumor-forming), perhaps in contrast to other non-tumorigenic cancer cells. CSCs may generate tumors through the stem cell processes of self-renewal and differentiation into multiple cell types.

Cell Cycle

Cell cycle, or cell-division cycle, is the series of events that take place in a cell leading to its division and duplication (replication). Cell cycle control affects many aspects of development. Caenorhabditis elegans cell-cycle genes have been identified over the past decade, including at least two distinct Cyclin-Dependent Kinases (CDKs), their cyclin partners, positive and negative regulators, and downstream targets.

Oncoproteins/Suppressors

An oncogene is a gene that has the potential to cause cancer. In tumor cells, they are often mutated or expressed at high levels. Most normal cells undergo a programmed form of death (apoptosis). Activated oncogenes can cause those cells that ought to die to survive and proliferate instead. Most oncogenes require an additional step, such as mutations in another gene, or environmental factors, such as viral infection, to cause cancer.

Wnt/Notch/Hedgehog Pathway

During development, Wnt (Wingless-Type MMTV Integration Site Family) have diverse roles in governing cell fates, proliferation, migration, polarity, and death. In the absence of Wnt signaling, β-Catenin is associated with a cytoplasmic complex containing CK1, GSK3, Axin, APC and PP2A.

How to cite research reagents in your paper

This article provides a guide on how to cite research reagents within your paper, to allow other scientists to procure the same reagents in order to reproduce and build upon your work.

A comparison between polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies

Polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies differ greatly in their production and their uses. This article outlines the key differences, advantages and disadvantages of polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies.

Price Comparison

This article compares the price differences between antibodies sourced from the OEM's and relabelled versions available from antibody vendors.

Tissue Homogenization Video

This video demonstrates how to prepare a homogenate from animal tissue using a Dounce homogenizer. The tissue homogenate can then be used for many different downstream applications like western blotting, enzyme assays etc. Similar technique may also be applied to cells for preparation of cell lysates.

Protein Quantitation Video

This video introduces protein quantitation, providing a guide to help you choose the right assay based on sample characteristics and a step-wise protocol for a colorimetric (OD 562 nm) detergent-compatible BCA assay with sample dilution guidelines.

Dialysis Video

This video demonstration shows you how to remove small molecules (salts, surfactants, solvents, detergents) from any sample by dialysis using BioVision’s DiaEasy™ Dialyzer line of products.

Cell Cryopreservation Video

This video demonstrates how to Trypsinize, count and freeze adherent mammalian cells for future use. These cryopreserved cells can be maintained in Liquid Nitrogen and thawed as needed.

Cell Splitting Video

This short video will take you through the steps (Trypsinization, counting and calculations) involved in passaging confluent adherent mammalian cells for future experiments or for maintenance of cell lines using Good Lab Practices and sterile technique.

Antibody Purification Video

This video shows you the steps for purifying a specific antibody from serum using BioVision’s high binding Protein A/Protein G-Sepharose beads. The purified antibody can then be used for Western Blotting, Immunoprecipitation and many other applications.

The Relabelling Racket (Video)

This video introduces the commercial practice of relabelling research antibodies for resale and explains its negative implications.

The Relabelling Racket

Almost exactly a year ago today a study was released in the journal PLOS which states $28 billion is spent in the United States each year on biomedical research that can’t be reproduced by other researchers. This is one of the most provocative analyses that have been presented in recent years, among several other studies that have had similar conclusions. In response, the National Institutes of Health (NIH) issued new criteria for grant reviews aimed at bolstering the reproducibility of NIH-funded research.

An introduction to the commercial practice of relabelling research antibodies

This article discusses the commercial practice of relabelling research antibodies, including the extent of this business model and its negative implications.

F1000 Research - Commercial antibodies and their validation (2014)

Despite an impressive growth in the business of research antibodies a general lack of trust in commercial antibodies remains in place. A variety of issues, each one potentially causing an antibody to fail, underpin the frustrations that scientists endure. Lots of money goes to waste in buying and trying one failing antibody after the other without realizing all the pitfalls that come with the product.

Analytical Chemistry Insights - Quality Issues of Research Antibodies (2016)

According to several recent studies, an unexpectedly high number of landmark papers seem to be not reproducible by independent laboratories. Although some papers have been published offering suggestions to improve the situation, they do not seem to be comprehensive enough to cover the full complexity of this issue. This article tries to consolidate the remarkable variety of conclusions and suggested activities into a more coherent conception.

Biotechniques – Antibody Validation (2010)

Antibodies are among the most frequently used tools in basic science research and in clinical assays, but there are no universally accepted guidelines or standardized methods for determining the validity of these reagents. Furthermore, for commercially available antibodies, it is clear that what is on the label does not necessarily correspond to what is in the tube. To validate an antibody, it must be shown to be specific, selective, and reproducible in the context for which it is to be used. In this review, we highlight the common pitfalls when working with antibodies, common practices for validating antibodies, and levels of commercial antibody validation for seven vendors. Finally, we share our algorithm for antibody validation for immunohistochemistry and quantitative immunofluorescence.

Nature - Reproducibility: Standardize antibodies used in research (2015)

To save millions of dollars and dramatically improve reproducibility, protein-binding reagents must be defined by their sequences and produced as recombinant proteins, say Andrew Bradbury, Andreas Plückthun and 110 co-signatories.

Nature - Finding the right antibody for the job (2013)

As new research applications for antibody-based assays emerge, the quest for quality intensifies in a crowded marketplace.

Nature - Biomedical researchers lax about validating antibodies for experiments (2016)

“reproducibility problems attributed to antibodies can be blamed on “a two-headed monster” of poor antibodies and poor training. Both are fuelled by lack of clear, commonly accepted guidelines about what is required to validate an antibody, and what information companies should supply about the reagent’s performance.”

Nature – Reproducibility crisis: Blame it on the antibodies (2015)

Antibodies are the workhorses of biological experiments, but they are littering the field with false findings. A few evangelists are pushing for change.

OEM Search Engine

This search engine only searches the websites of companies who manufacture all their own reagents. It is designed to help you match a product from an antibody reseller back to the original source.

MOB357 - Mucin 5AC/Gastric Mucin Antibody

Product Quality Guarantee

We promise guaranteed product quality and expert customer service. Read about our product quality guarantee.

An introduction to allergy and chimeric human IgE mAbs

Allergy is an IgE-mediated immune reaction triggered by specific allergens followed by a series of clinical symptoms, such as itching, sneezing, and running nose. Serum concentrations of allergen-specific IgE and the ratio of specific IgE to total IgE are correlated with the appearance of allergic symptoms.

Why use oligoclonals as secondary antibodies?

This article introduces oligoclonal antibodies and explains the benefits of using them as secondary antibodies.