|Description:||Mouse monoclonal antibody to FOXO1.|
|Immunogen:||Recombinant protein of human FOXO1|
|Formulation:||PBS with 0.02% sodium azide, 50% glycerol, pH7.3.|
|Synonyms:||FKH1; FKHR; FOXO1A|
|Background:||This gene belongs to the forkhead family of transcription factors which are characterized by a distinct forkhead domain. The specific function of this gene has not yet been determined; however, it may play a role in myogenic growth and differentiation. Translocation of this gene with PAX3 has been associated with alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma.|
|Storage:||Store at -20℃. Avoid freeze / thaw cycles.|
|Recommended Dilutions:||WB 1:500 - 1:2000|
Target (Information from UniProt)
|Function:||Transcription factor that is the main target of insulin signaling and regulates metabolic homeostasis in response to oxidative stress. Binds to the insulin response element (IRE) with consensus sequence 5'-TT[G/A]TTTTG-3' and the related Daf-16 family binding element (DBE) with consensus sequence 5'-TT[G/A]TTTAC-3'. Activity suppressed by insulin. Main regulator of redox balance and osteoblast numbers and controls bone mass. Orchestrates the endocrine function of the skeleton in regulating glucose metabolism. Acts synergistically with ATF4 to suppress osteocalcin/BGLAP activity, increasing glucose levels and triggering glucose intolerance and insulin insensitivity. Also suppresses the transcriptional activity of RUNX2, an upstream activator of osteocalcin/BGLAP. In hepatocytes, promotes gluconeogenesis by acting together with PPARGC1A and CEBPA to activate the expression of genes such as IGFBP1, G6PC and PCK1. Important regulator of cell death acting downstream of CDK1, PKB/AKT1 and SKT4/MST1. Promotes neural cell death. Mediates insulin action on adipose tissue. Regulates the expression of adipogenic genes such as PPARG during preadipocyte differentiation and, adipocyte size and adipose tissue-specific gene expression in response to excessive calorie intake. Regulates the transcriptional activity of GADD45A and repair of nitric oxide-damaged DNA in beta-cells. Required for the autophagic cell death induction in response to starvation or oxidative stress in a transcription-independent manner.|
|Involvement in Disease:||Rhabdomyosarcoma 2: A form of rhabdomyosarcoma, a highly malignant tumor of striated muscle derived from primitive mesenchymal cells and exhibiting differentiation along rhabdomyoblastic lines. Rhabdomyosarcoma is one of the most frequently occurring soft tissue sarcomas and the most common in children. It occurs in four forms: alveolar, pleomorphic, embryonal and botryoidal rhabdomyosarcomas.|
|Post-Translational Modification:||Phosphorylation by NLK promotes nuclear export and inhibits the transcriptional activity. In response to growth factors, phosphorylation on Thr-24, Ser-256 and Ser-322 by PKB/AKT1 promotes nuclear export and inactivation of transactivational activity. Phosphorylation on Thr-24 is required for binding 14-3-3 proteins. Phosphorylation of Ser-256 decreases DNA-binding activity and promotes the phosphorylation of Thr-24 and Ser-319, permitting phosphorylation of Ser-322 and Ser-325, probably by CDK1, leading to nuclear exclusion and loss of function. Stress signals, such as response to oxygen or nitric oxide, attenuate the PKB/AKT1-mediated phosphorylation leading to nuclear retention. Phosphorylation of Ser-329 is independent of IGF1 and leads to reduced function. Dephosphorylated on Thr-24 and Ser-256 by PP2A in beta-cells under oxidative stress leading to nuclear retention (By similarity). Phosphorylation of Ser-249 by CDK1 disrupts binding of 14-3-3 proteins leading to nuclear accumulation and has no effect on DNA-binding nor transcriptional activity. Phosphorylation by STK4/MST1 on Ser-212, upon oxidative stress, inhibits binding to 14-3-3 proteins and nuclear export.|
|Cellular Location:||Cytoplasm. Nucleus.
Shuttles between the cytoplasm and nucleus. Largely nuclear in unstimulated cells. In osteoblasts, colocalizes with ATF4 and RUNX2 in the nucleus (By similarity). Insulin-induced phosphorylation at Ser-256 by PKB/AKT1 leads, via stimulation of Thr-24 phosphorylation, to binding of 14-3-3 proteins and nuclear export to the cytoplasm where it is degraded by the ubiquitin-proteosomal pathway. Phosphorylation at Ser-249 by CDK1 disrupts binding of 14-3-3 proteins and promotes nuclear accumulation. Phosphorylation by NLK results in nuclear export. Translocates to the nucleus upon oxidative stress-induced phosphorylation at Ser-212 by STK4/MST1. SGK1-mediated phosphorylation also results in nuclear translocation. Retained in the nucleus under stress stimuli including oxidative stress, nutrient deprivation or nitric oxide. Retained in the nucleus on methylation.
Western blot analysis of extracts of various cell lines, using FOXO1 antibody.