|Description:||Rabbit polyclonal antibody to BAD.|
|Immunogen:||A synthetic peptide of human Bad|
|Formulation:||PBS with 0.02% sodium azide, 50% glycerol, pH7.3.|
|Synonyms:||Bcl2 antagonist of cell death; BAD; Bcl-2-binding component 6; BCL2L8; Bcl-XL/Bcl-2-associated death promoter; Bcl-2-like 8 protein; BAD; BBC6|
|Background:||Bad is a proapoptotic member of the Bcl-2 family that promotes cell death by displacing Bax from binding to Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL (1,2). Survival factors, such as IL-3, inhibit the apoptotic activity of Bad by activating intracellular signaling pathways that result in the phosphorylation of Bad at Ser112 and Ser136 (2). Phosphorylation at these sites promotes binding of Bad to 14-3-3 proteins to prevent an association between Bad with Bcl-2 and Bcl-xl (2). Akt phosphorylates Bad at Ser136 to promote cell survival (3,4). Bad is phosphorylated at Ser112 both in vivo and in vitro by p90RSK (5,6) and mitochondria-anchored PKA (7). Phosphorylation of Ser155 in the BH3 domain by PKA plays a critical role in blocking the dimerization of Bad and Bcl-xL (8-10).|
|Storage:||Store at -20℃. Avoid freeze / thaw cycles.|
|Recommended Dilutions:||WB 1:100 - 1:200, IHC 1:50 - 1:100|
Target (Information from UniProt)
|Function:||Promotes cell death. Successfully competes for the binding to Bcl-X(L), Bcl-2 and Bcl-W, thereby affecting the level of heterodimerization of these proteins with BAX. Can reverse the death repressor activity of Bcl-X(L), but not that of Bcl-2 (By similarity). Appears to act as a link between growth factor receptor signaling and the apoptotic pathways.|
|Tissue Specificity:||Expressed in a wide variety of tissues.|
|Sequence Similarities:||Belongs to the Bcl-2 family.|
|Post-Translational Modification:||Phosphorylated on one or more of Ser-75, Ser-99, Ser-118 and Ser-134 in response to survival stimuli, which blocks its pro-apoptotic activity. Phosphorylation on Ser-99 or Ser-75 promotes heterodimerization with 14-3-3 proteins. This interaction then facilitates the phosphorylation at Ser-118, a site within the BH3 motif, leading to the release of Bcl-X(L) and the promotion of cell survival. Ser-99 is the major site of AKT/PKB phosphorylation, Ser-118 the major site of protein kinase A (CAPK) phosphorylation. Phosphorylation at Ser-99 by PKB/AKT1 is almost completely blocked by the apoptotic C-terminus cleavage product of PKN2 generated by caspases-3 activity during apoptosis.|
|Cellular Location:||Mitochondrion outer membrane. Cytoplasm.
Colocalizes with HIF3A in the cytoplasm (By similarity). Upon phosphorylation, locates to the cytoplasm.
Western blot analysis of extracts of various cells, using BAD antibody.