Anti-beta Catenin Antibody (FITC)
|Description:||Rabbit polyclonal antibody to beta Catenin (FITC)|
|Reactivity:||Human, Mouse, Rat|
|Immunogen:||C-epitope synthetic peptide taken within amino acid region 740-790 on human beta CTNNB protein.|
|Concentration:||0.55 µg/µl in antibody stabilization buffer|
|Synonyms:||Cadherin associated protein antibody|
|Background:||Major downstream component of the canonical Wnt signalling pathway. Also involved in the regulation of cell adhesion and acts as a negative regulator of centrosome cohesion.|
|Storage:||-20⁰C for long term storage|
|Recommended Dilutions:||DB: 1:10,000; ELISA: 1:10,000; Western Blot: 1:500|
Target (Information from UniProt)
|Function:||Key downstream component of the canonical Wnt signaling pathway. In the absence of Wnt, forms a complex with AXIN1, AXIN2, APC, CSNK1A1 and GSK3B that promotes phosphorylation on N-terminal Ser and Thr residues and ubiquitination of CTNNB1 via BTRC and its subsequent degradation by the proteasome. In the presence of Wnt ligand, CTNNB1 is not ubiquitinated and accumulates in the nucleus, where it acts as a coactivator for transcription factors of the TCF/LEF family, leading to activate Wnt responsive genes. Involved in the regulation of cell adhesion. Acts as a negative regulator of centrosome cohesion. Involved in the CDK2/PTPN6/CTNNB1/CEACAM1 pathway of insulin internalization. Blocks anoikis of malignant kidney and intestinal epithelial cells and promotes their anchorage-independent growth by down-regulating DAPK2. Disrupts PML function and PML-NB formation by inhibiting RANBP2-mediated sumoylation of PML (PubMed:17524503, PubMed:18077326, PubMed:18086858, PubMed:18957423, PubMed:21262353, PubMed:22647378, PubMed:22699938, PubMed:22155184). Promotes neurogenesis by maintaining sympathetic neuroblasts within the cell cycle (By similarity).|
|Tissue Specificity:||Expressed in several hair follicle cell types: basal and peripheral matrix cells, and cells of the outer and inner root sheaths. Expressed in colon. Present in cortical neurons (at protein level).|
|Involvement in Disease:||Colorectal cancer: A complex disease characterized by malignant lesions arising from the inner wall of the large intestine (the colon) and the rectum. Genetic alterations are often associated with progression from premalignant lesion (adenoma) to invasive adenocarcinoma. Risk factors for cancer of the colon and rectum include colon polyps, long-standing ulcerative colitis, and genetic family history.
Pilomatrixoma: Common benign skin tumor.
Medulloblastoma: Malignant, invasive embryonal tumor of the cerebellum with a preferential manifestation in children.
Ovarian cancer: The term ovarian cancer defines malignancies originating from ovarian tissue. Although many histologic types of ovarian tumors have been described, epithelial ovarian carcinoma is the most common form. Ovarian cancers are often asymptomatic and the recognized signs and symptoms, even of late-stage disease, are vague. Consequently, most patients are diagnosed with advanced disease.
Mesothelioma, malignant: An aggressive neoplasm of the serosal lining of the chest. It appears as broad sheets of cells, with some regions containing spindle-shaped, sarcoma-like cells and other regions showing adenomatous patterns. Pleural mesotheliomas have been linked to exposure to asbestos.
Mental retardation, autosomal dominant 19: A disorder characterized by significantly below average general intellectual functioning associated with impairments in adaptive behavior and manifested during the developmental period. MRD19 features include severe intellectual disability with absent or very limited speech, microcephaly, and spasticity which severely impaired the ability to walk.
|Sequence Similarities:||Belongs to the beta-catenin family.|
|Post-Translational Modification:||Phosphorylation at Ser-552 by AMPK promotes stabilizion of the protein, enhancing TCF/LEF-mediated transcription (By similarity). Phosphorylation by GSK3B requires prior phosphorylation of Ser-45 by another kinase. Phosphorylation proceeds then from Thr-41 to Ser-37 and Ser-33. Phosphorylated by NEK2. EGF stimulates tyrosine phosphorylation. Phosphorylation on Tyr-654 decreases CDH1 binding and enhances TBP binding. Phosphorylated on Ser-33 and Ser-37 by HIPK2. This phosphorylation triggers proteasomal degradation. Phosphorylation on Ser-191 and Ser-246 by CDK5. Phosphorylation by CDK2 regulates insulin internalization. Phosphorylation by PTK6 at Tyr-64, Tyr-142, Tyr-331 and/or Tyr-333 with the predominant site at Tyr-64 is not essential for inhibition of transcriptional activity.|
|Cellular Location:||Cytoplasm. Nucleus. Cytoplasm > Cytoskeleton. Cell junction > Adherens junction. Cell junction. Cell membrane. Cytoplasm > Cytoskeleton > Microtubule organizing center > Centrosome. Cytoplasm > Cytoskeleton > Spindle pole.
Colocalized with RAPGEF2 and TJP1 at cell-cell contacts (By similarity). Cytoplasmic when it is unstabilized (high level of phosphorylation) or bound to CDH1. Translocates to the nucleus when it is stabilized (low level of phosphorylation). Interaction with GLIS2 and MUC1 promotes nuclear translocation. Interaction with EMD inhibits nuclear localization. The majority of beta-catenin is localized to the cell membrane. In interphase, colocalizes with CROCC between CEP250 puncta at the proximal end of centrioles, and this localization is dependent on CROCC and CEP250. In mitosis, when NEK2 activity increases, it localizes to centrosomes at spindle poles independent of CROCC. Colocalizes with CDK5 in the cell-cell contacts and plasma membrane of undifferentiated and differentiated neuroblastoma cells.